The Gupta lab has teams in both London and at the Africa Health Research Institute in Durban South Africa. Our work focuses on two areas:
Studying in vitro HIV drug resistance to protease inhibitors and implications for global scale up of antiretroviral therapy.
Investigating the details of macrophage infection in clinical isolates. Macrophages are a crucial component of the immune system and a unique cell type in terms of access to sanctuary sites, thus representing a difficult-to-treat reservoir.
Ravi Gupta’s research career is focused on emergence of global HIV drug resistance. Having completed his specialist medical training in infectious diseases and a Masters in International Public Health, he now works on clinical/epidemiological aspects of drug resistance as well as in vitro investigation of susceptibility to protease inhibitors, a major class of drugs now being widely used to tackle first line treatment failure globally.
His doctoral work also included work on mammalian innate immune restriction factors, generating interest in innate immune cells such as macrophages. The lab now also works on how HIV parasitises long lived macrophages and the role of these cells as a reservoir of HIV, including drug resistant strains.
In addition we are studying the underlying virus and host biology behind HIV ‘elite controllers’ who are able to naturally control infection without drug therapy. Such insights may lead to alternative treatments for HIV.
Gupta RK, Abdul-Jawad S, McCoy LE, Mok HP, Peppa D, Salgado M, Martinez-Picado J, Nijhuis M, Wensing AMJ, Lee H, Grant P, Nastouli E, Lambert J, Pace M, Salasc F, Monit C, Innes AJ, Muir L, Waters L, Frater J, Lever AML, Edwards SG, Gabriel IH, Olavarria E.HIV-1 remission following CCR5Δ32/Δ32 haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Nature 2019. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1027-4
Mlcochova P, Caswell SJ, Taylor IA, Towers GJ, Gupta RK. DNA damage induced by topoisomerase inhibitors activates SAMHD1 and blocks HIV-1 infection of macrophages. EMBO 2018. DOI: 10.15252/embj.201796880
Mlcochova P, Sutherland KA, Watters SA, Bertoli C, de Bruin RA, Rehwinkel J, Neil SJ, Lenzi GM, Kim B, Khwaja A, Gage MC, Georgiou C, Chittka A, Yona S, Noursadeghi M, Towers GJ, Gupta RK. A G1–like state allows HIV–1 to bypass SAMHD1 restriction in macrophages. EMBO 2017. DOI: 10.15252/embj.201696025
TenoRes Study Group. Global epidemiology of drug resistance following failure of WHO recommended first line regimens for adult HIV–1 infection – a multi– centre retrospective cohort study. Lancet Infectious Disease 2016. DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00536-8
Sutherland KA, Collier DA, Claiborne DT, Prince JL, Deymier MJ, Goldstein RA, Hunter E, Gupta RK. Wide variation in susceptibility of HIV– 1 subtype C Isolates to protease inhibitors and association with in vitro replication efficiency. Scientific Reports 2016. DOI: 10.1038/srep38153